This shows several types of book repair. The dark brown book on the left has received a new case with a strip of vellum on the bottom. Vellum is an exceptionally hard- wearing material, though expensive, so a small strip of it where a book rests on a shelf can prevent abrasion to that area. The olive green book above it has received what is called ‘recasing’. New cloth was dyed to match the old in order to rejoin the cover boards to the textblock. The standing book with the leather spine was rebacked with Moriki, a Japanese paper. Sometimes the high cost of leather prohibits its use in book repair, and Moriki offers a strong, lightweight substitute. It can be dyed to match the original covering material.